This restaurant "theory" the Yoshinoya play! We can also learn…… Today you want to share a reference Yoshinoya falls two times the case. In 1970, Japan also Yoshinoya has only 3 stores, sold only a beef meal, to 300, suddenly overnight bankruptcy in 1983 after the reorganization, only now yoshinoya. In 2004, because of the mad cow disease epidemic, Japan to stop selling Yoshinoya beef rice, facing bankruptcy risk again. In 2006 before the resumption of supply Yoshinoya beef rice. This is because the Yoshinoya excessive dependence on a single product, the unrest once the supply chain end, the crisis comes immediately. Fortunately, it will carry over. At present, Yoshinoya has more than 1700 stores in the world, Chinese has more than 400 stores, annual revenues of 3 billion 300 million yuan. Beef and chicken rice is its products. You think the reference, Yoshinoya down over the pit, is also worth thinking: how to do a single product focus, how to make products, standardization of the "degree" should be where? Li and Huang Hongsen, editor of | catering boss reference Xuejing in Beijing closed 1. Yoshinoya do a single product focus of the original logic is a popular Yoshinoya, canteen, selling all kinds of dishes. When the second generation successor Matsuda Mizuho in charge of Yoshinoya found so many products sold are not good, walk every day is very small. It was 1970, the first year of the Japanese food industry. Prior to that year, the Japanese food prices is full of small workshops, after a group of ambitious people began to try Japanese restaurant chain and enterprise management. Matsuda Mizuho is one of the group, he wanted a family from Yoshinoya store into the scale management of chain enterprises. Matsuda Mizuho said: less product, food purchases more focused, the lower the cost, so it can generate economies of scale. Further focus on a single product, so simple and easy to operate, no technical threshold, with fewer people, can make the enterprise benefit maximization. Decided after the transition, Yoshinoya began elimination and optimization of restaurant products, customers finally chose Steamed Rice with Beef. 2. single product focus on three main pit Yoshinoya Steamed Rice with Beef focused on, beef, beef if this single ingredient is a problem, is a fatal blow to the enterprise. However, throughout 1970s, Yoshinoya supply only Steamed Rice with Beef this kind of food, raw materials is beef, rice, sauce three. Indeed, a single product focus to make Yoshinoya in a short period of time the rapid expansion to more than 300 stores, but the ensuing crisis — 1. local beef shortage, can not support large quantities of demand chain Yoshinoya beef rice, originally used the Japanese beef seven thin three fat, such as beef tastes good, but the yield is very small. Both internal and external experts found in Japan to buy such food cost is very large, stores open more, the higher the cost, it becomes difficult to chain. So start Yoshinoya global procurement, they found that American beef is only a little Japanese fertilizer, although the taste is slightly worse, but the price is a lot cheaper. Yoshinoya consideration, American beef is not terrible, in order to demand chain, can be bought in bulk. 2. imported food trade risk, a careless move, then taste aliasing.

这个餐饮“理论”把吉野家玩儿惨了!可我们还在学……今天内参君想分享一个吉野家两次跌倒的案例。1970年,吉野家在日本还只有3家门店,只卖一款牛肉饭,开到300家的时候,突然一夜之间宣布破产,1983年重组之后,才有了现在的吉野家。2004年,因为疯牛病肆虐,日本吉野家停售牛肉饭,再度面临破产险境。2006年吉野家才恢复了牛肉饭供给。这是由于吉野家过度依赖单品,一旦供应链端出现动荡,危机即刻降临。好在它都扛过来了。目前,吉野家在全球有1700多家门店,中国有400多家门店,一年营收33亿人民币。牛肉饭和鸡肉饭是它的拳头产品。内参君认为,吉野家所跌过的大坑,也值得我们去思考:究竟该如何做单品聚焦,如何做产品,标准化的“度”应该在哪里?■ 餐饮老板内参|黄宏森 编辑 | 关雪菁发于北京 1.吉野家做单品聚焦的逻辑最初,吉野家是个大众食堂,里头售卖各种菜品。第二代继承人松田瑞穗掌管吉野家的时候发现,这么多产品卖得却并不好,每天走的量很小。那是1970年,日本餐饮产业的元年,在那一年之前,日本餐企全是小作坊,之后,一批有志向的日本餐饮人开始尝试连锁和企业化经营。松田瑞穗也是这批人中的一位,他想让吉野家从一家家族小店变成规模经营的连锁企业。松田瑞穗认为:产品少、食材聚焦,采购量越大费用越低,如此才能够产生规模效益。进一步聚焦单品,这样简单、易操作、没有技术门槛,用人少,能够让企业利益最大化。决定转型之后,吉野家开始对餐厅里的产品进行末位淘汰以及优化,最后顾客都选择了牛肉盖饭。 2.单品聚焦三大坑吉野家主打牛肉盖饭,聚焦在牛肉上,如果牛肉这个单一食材出了问题,对企业的打击是致命的。然而,整个1970年代,吉野家只供应牛肉盖饭这一种食物,所需原材料就是牛肉、大米、酱汁三样。 的确,单品聚焦让吉野家得以在短时间内快速扩张至300多家店,然而危机也随之而来——1.本土牛肉量不足,支撑不了大批量的连锁店需求吉野家的牛肉饭,本来用的是日本产七瘦三肥的牛肉,这样的牛肉虽然味道好,但产量非常少。吉野家内外部专家发现,在日本采购这样的食材成本非常大,门店开得越多,成本越高,想要连锁就变得困难。于是吉野家开始全球采购,他们发现美国的牛肉只比日本产的肥了一点,虽然味道略差,但是价格却便宜不少。吉野家考虑,美国牛肉并不难吃,为了连锁需求,可以批量采购。2.进口食材存在贸易风险,一招不慎,口味走样当时美国不允许日本直接从美国进口生鲜牛肉,能够自由进口的只有腌制牛肉、风干牛肉和内脏肉。吉野家最后选用风干牛肉,就是把鲜牛肉抽取5%的水进行风干,以加工食品的名义进口到日本,到日本后,再把风干肉加水还原使用。然而风干还原后的牛肉,香味不在。原来五花肉脂肪呈白色的,风干还原后颜色变黄、出现异味。一开始,为了照顾口感,吉野家用95%的日本牛肉混入5%的美国进口牛肉,来制作菜品。其实,即便混入量很小,风干牛肉的异味依然存在,影响口感。那时候,吉野家为了追求规模化经营,一口气跟美国签了一年的风干牛肉进口合同,导致每个月都有大量的风干牛肉进入吉野家的仓库,库存开始积压。为了清库存,吉野家就强制门店销售进口牛肉。门店的应对之策,就是不断地提高进口牛肉在牛肉饭中的比例。顾客反映,吉野家的牛肉饭越来越难吃了。3.单品模式导致极致标准化思维,进一步牺牲口味同时,为了保证品质稳定、出品批量化,吉野家把所有门店所需酱汁都挪到中央厨房统一调汁配送。为了降低物流成本、延长酱汁保质期,吉野家还引入了将酱汁做成粉末的干粉化技术。此后,每家吉野家门店只需要把酱料干粉兑水即可使用。这么一来,吉野家的确降低了不少成本。但是牛肉饭的口味却每况愈下,直到消费者们用脚投票,不再选择吉野家。终于,1980年,吉野家破产了。破产之后的吉野家反思:一味追求企业自身的利益点忽视了消费者对味道的需求,而企业还在拼命追求自己的规模经济效应,这是舍本逐末。 3.当单品聚焦危机来临,怎么办?2003年,由于美国疯牛病肆虐,食材危机再度袭击了吉野家。当时日本政府要求,在两年半内,国内停止从美国进口牛肉。而那时吉野家在日本有1000多家店,只出售牛肉饭,严重依赖美国进口牛肉。为了应对危机,吉野家想过开发第二款产品,但因为已经忙于应对危机,没有任何多余精力搞研发了。你可能会问,为什么吉野家这么多年都没有想过开发第二种产品?其实,吉野家的研发团队的确推出过多款产品,但是这些产品在菜单上只短暂停留就被砍掉了。你想,如果卖牛肉盖饭效益最大,开发新品费时、费力、费钱,还未必卖得好,何必费这个力气呢?危机中,吉野家也考虑过,用日本本土牛肉替代,但成本过高。那时候,由于产品同质化竞争大打价格战,一碗牛肉饭在日本消费者心目中的价格只有300日币,超过这个价位的牛肉饭很难卖出去。吉野家不可能因为原材料成本提高,而提高菜品价格。吉野家也想过采用肥肉比例更低的澳洲牛肉或者中国牛肉,至少它的竞争对手都在这么干。但是吉野家认为,肥牛肉是牛肉饭的根本,如果真的使用美国以外的牛肉,顾客会失望,长期看来这是企业经营的风险。最终吉野家社长安部修仁冒险决定,当库存的美国牛肉用尽之后,停止出售牛肉饭,改卖猪肉饭和鸡肉饭,并且把猪肉饭和鸡肉饭的价格定得比牛肉饭更高。有人曾指出,吉野家所面临的危机来自于单品聚焦。安部修仁也承认,菜单上只有一种产品风险巨大,因此他们也不断增加新品类。所以,即便在中国市场上,我们现在也会看到吉野家不只有牛肉饭、鸡肉饭、猪肉饭,还有蘑菇、泡菜、鲐鱼饭,甚至季节性推出的小火锅。关注大豫创业微信dychuangye,参加最新创业沙龙活动,了解河南最新创业政策红利。相关的主题文章: